Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/index.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 732

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::_createConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 73

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JUtility::getHash() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 101

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/utilities/utility.php on line 111

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 384

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 770

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::_createSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 94

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 501

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 737

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JSession::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 507

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JSessionStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 108

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/storage.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/storage/database.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 268

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::_createDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 271

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 551

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 563

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JError::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 565

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JTable::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/storage/database.php on line 69

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPath::find() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/database/table.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JTable::addIncludePath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/database/table.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/database/table.php on line 112

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JTable::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 773

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/database/table.php on line 112

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/includes/application.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JComponentHelper::getParams() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/includes/application.php on line 60

Strict Standards: Non-static method JComponentHelper::getComponent() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/component/helper.php on line 83

Strict Standards: Non-static method JComponentHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/component/helper.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/component/helper.php on line 196

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/includes/application.php on line 61

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLanguage::exists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/includes/application.php on line 68

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFolder::exists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/language/language.php on line 265

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPath::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/filesystem/folder.php on line 392

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 166

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 174

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 384

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::isEnabled() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 176

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 174

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 175

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/index.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/spineadv/public_html/home/libraries/loader.php on line 71
How does lumbar degenerative disc disease affect the disc deformation at the cephalic levels in vivo? | London Spine spineadvance.com
Get Adobe Flash player

How does lumbar degenerative disc disease affect the disc deformation at the cephalic levels in vivo?

User Rating: / 0
PoorBest 

How does lumbar degenerative disc disease affect the disc deformation at the cephalic levels in vivo?

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Apr 20;36(9):E574-81

Authors: Wang S, Xia Q, Passias P, Li W, Wood K, Li G

STUDY DESIGN.: Case-control study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) on the disc deformation at the adjacent level and at the level one above the adjacent level during end ranges of lumbar motion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: It has been reported that in patients with DDD, the intervertebral discs adjacent to the diseased levels have a greater tendency to degenerate. Although altered biomechanics have been suggested to be the causative factors, few data have been reported on the deformation characteristics of the adjacent discs in patients with DDD. METHODS.: Ten symptomatic patients with discogenic low back pain between L4 and S1 and with healthy discs at the cephalic segments were involved. Eight healthy subjects recruited in our previous studies were used as a reference comparison. The In Vivo kinematics of L3-L4 (the cephalic adjacent level to the degenerated discs) and L2-L3 (the level one above the adjacent level) lumbar discs of both groups were obtained using a combined magnetic resonance imaging and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique at functional postures. Deformation characteristics, in terms of areas of minimal deformation (defined as less than 5%), deformations at the center of the discs, and maximum tensile and shear deformations, were compared between the two groups at the two disc levels. RESULTS.: In the patients with DDD, there were significantly smaller areas of minimal disc deformation at L3-L4 and L2-L3 than the healthy subjects (18% compared with 45% of the total disc area, on average). Both L2-L3 and L3-L4 discs underwent larger tensile and shear deformations in all postures than the healthy subjects. The maximum tensile deformations were higher by up to 23% (of the local disc height in standing) and the maximum shear deformations were higher by approximately 25% to 40% (of the local disc height in standing) compared with those of the healthy subjects. CONCLUSION.: Both the discs of the adjacent level and the level one above experienced higher tensile and shear deformations during end ranges of lumbar motion in the patients with DDD before surgical treatments when compared with the healthy subjects. The larger disc deformations at the cephalic segments were otherwise not detectable using conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Future studies should investigate the effect of surgical treatments, such as fusion or disc replacement, on the biomechanics of the adjacent segments during end ranges of lumbar motion.

PMID: 21245781 [PubMed - in process]


Read Full Article